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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. The Greenwood Dictionary of Education 2. Copyright by John W. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Includes index. Collins, John William, II. G68 Visit www.

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Revisions to terms previously included represent shifts in educational practice and theory. The Dictionary documents the history of education as well as its future trends. A dictionary that encompasses lexicography of past events, as well as the terminology that describes current and future trends, is a critical resource.

This second edition provides a timely update with completely new terms that add to the value of the education lexicon along with numerous revisions. This second edition of The Greenwood Dictionary of Education offers a comprehensive view of education terms and, when compared to its lexical predecessors, a glimpse of how rapidly that terminology changes. Education impacts everyone. James D. Anderson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign vii 6. Other publications offer a narrow or specialized focus—health education, or British educational terminology, for example.

This updated second edition will aid in the contemporary understanding and use of terms as they apply to educational research, practice, and theory. Directed to educators, researchers, scholars, and students, this reference source will also be of value to anyone concerned with education issues. Some new terms and complete revisions have been included along with other updates. New categories of coverage such as neuroscience in education have been added, and extensive additions to the areas of educational technology and media, along with measurement, evaluation, and assessment are included.

As we embarked on the ambitious task of producing a second edition of this work, we enlisted the aid of scholars with a wide variety of expertise. The terms for inclusion in this edition of the Dictionary were collected over a three-year period. The editors-in-chief were extensively involved in a continual review of the education literature to seek terms for inclusion.

They also coordinated the work of the Dictionary, managed deadlines, and compiled and edited the hundreds of submissions. The focus of the Dictionary is on education as it is practiced in the United States. However, given the current global nature of society, the terms are relevant to many aspects of education practiced in other countries.

Our editing has traveled with us as we engaged in professional conferences or trips with our families. We have carried segments of the manuscript across country and across continents. Preface xi that may appear in this work. Credit for the immense amount of work represented in this new edition, however, is shared among the contributing editors, contributors, and many others who provide invaluable assistance.

We hope that the Dictionary will be widely consulted and that it will continue to grow and expand in the years to come. John W. Dictionary of Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, Acknowledgments An undertaking of this size would not be possible without the support of many people. As editors, we are extremely grateful for the contributions of our colleagues, students, and families. We thank them for their unwavering patience, encouragement, and, more practically, proofreading and advice.

We are indebted to each of the contributing editors and contributors for lending their expertise to this project. The number of contributors to this volume is staggering. Mark Shelton, head of collection development at Gutman Library, provided considerable expertise on many levels.

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His contributions were invaluable. There are many others to thank, and we offer a collective note of appreciation to all who have contributed to this project. We would be remiss, however, if we did not single out the work of Ann S. Flentje, our Harvard colleague, whose keen eye, profound editorial prowess, and tireless efforts toward the completion of this volume have been remarkable. Without her, this volume would not have been possible.

Instead, we have indicated that when used in one educational context the term has a certain meaning, while in another context it has a different connotation. The Greenwood Dictionary of Education, 2nd Edition, focuses on contemporary terminology used in education.


Other parts of the work include a foreword by the distinguished historian James D. Anderson, and a preface describing the process and background of how the Dictionary came into being. The dictionary entries follow this prefatory material. There is much disagreement over the question of whether intelligence is unitary or multiple, genetically determined or socially developed, and whether the tests purported to measure it can do so.

Grouping can be either homogeneous students of similar abilities placed together or heterogeneous students of mixed abilities placed together. These students see knowledge as something to be received, as well as something to be mastered. These federally funded programs do not provide information on basic topics in human sexuality such as puberty, reproductive anatomy, and sexual health; empirical research consistently demonstrates the ineffectiveness of this approach. A particular poem may be beautiful, but beauty itself is an abstract concept.

Abstract painting features the use of lines, colors, and forms to represent attitudes and emotions rather than photograph-like representations of particular objects.

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Abstract art may appear accidental in its making even when it has been carefully planned and executed. The art of very young children is often likened to abstract art because it aptly represents human qualities and emotions even as it disregards details of pictorial representation. The focus is on investigation and proof of theories behind the development of algebraic rules and procedures. Here the child distinguishes between those items that can be counted using the sequence 10, 20, 30, 40 from those to be counted using the standard number-word sequence but does not see one 10 as composed of 10 ones.

The number 10 is thus a mathematical entity that can be thought of simultaneously as one thing and 10 things. The child can take the counting words themselves as objects to be counted. The perpetrators of abuse toward children frequently include caregivers or parents but may also include other children. Threatened harm is also considered abuse. Related to scholarly aspects of education beyond the high school. Ranges from praise to sarcasm: academically sound or merely academic i. Reasonable and appropriate accommodations reduce the impact of the functional limitations of an impairment by reducing or eliminating barriers in acquiring information or access to academic programs.

Academic affairs administrators handle faculty issues, such as recruitment, supervision, and evaluation of academic deans; academic policies and standards; and advising the president concerning tenure, promotion, and leaves. The three common types of calendars are the semester, the quarter, and the trimester.

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In , the Doctrine that professors and students are free to inquire, to learn, and to teach in a climate of judgmental neutrality; to teach in the absence of political, religious, or social censorship. Derived from the German concepts of Lernfreiheit uncontrolled study and Lehrfreiheit freedom of teaching. Academic integrity also encompasses students refraining from cheating on examinations and in all of their classroom assignments.

Academic integrity is the standard by which individuals are expected to create their own work and not reproduce or copy the work or ideas of others without giving proper credit. In the arts and sciences, the term refers to a society or professional community seeking to advance art, science, or literature. Contributors Second Edition. Contributors by Initials. About the Editors. Language English View all editions Prev Next edition 3 of 3. Subjects History -- Dictionaries. Notes Formerly CIP. Includes bibliographical references p. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?

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